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Nowadays, diseases are becoming increasingly common. One among the global epidemic is diabetes.
Diabetes is most relevant today as November 14 is world diabetes day. It is a day earmarked in a year to create awareness about diabetes as the number of patients is increasing year by year.
World Health Organization is supporting nations with surveillance, prevention and control of diabetes, and its complications. This year’s theme is ‘Access to Diabetes Care. Diabetes has spread its wings so rapidly that it is hard to find a person, who has not heard about diabetes.
Still on eve of diabetes day, when the pancreas in the human body does not produce enough hormone called insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces, diagnostically, it is diabetes onset.

Insulin regulates blood glucose or blood sugar. It is dangerous to have low blood sugar as well as high blood sugar. Both are silent killers. Over time, diabetes damages blood vessels, the heart, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. More than 95% of people suffer from type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset). This type of diabetes is the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity. Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is deficient insulin production in a body and requires daily administration of insulin. Onset symptoms include excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue. Diabetes type one and two are commonly known conditions. Let us know some of the less-known types of diabetic conditions. 

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Gestational Diabetes

birth, child, faith-2026185.jpgGestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery. These women and their children are also at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the future.

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)

Moody is unpredictable changes of mood, but Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of several conditions characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. This diabetes begins before age 25. In the most common subtype (MODY3), more than 95% of people with the mutation will develop diabetes, most by 25 years of age. MODY accounts for approximately 1% to 5% of diabetes cases. It is most often an autosomal dominant disease, with 50% of offspring affected.

Neonatal Diabetes

baby, portrait, newborn-20374.jpgNeonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare form of diabetes that occurs within the first 6 to 12 months of life. This is a monogenic form of diabetes. The reported incidence ranges from 1 in 90,000 to 160,000 live births. Infants with this condition do not produce enough insulin, which increases blood glucose levels. Several health complications can occur in neonatal diabetes, depending on which gene is affected. Children with neonatal diabetes will have developmental delays such as muscle weakness and learning disabilities, diabetic ketoacidosis.

Wolfram Syndrome

Wolfram syndrome is a rare genetic disorder which is also known as DIDMOAD syndrome, named after its four most common features (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness). Wolfram syndrome is fatal in mid-adulthood due to complications from neurological problems. Better diagnosis and management can raise life expectancy. Careful clinical monitoring and supportive care can relieve the debilitating symptoms.

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slow-progressing form of autoimmune diabetes. LADA occurs because your pancreas stops producing adequate insulin. LADA symptoms are similar to those of type 1 or 2 diabetes although appetite goes up.

Type 3c diabetes

Pancreatogenic Diabetes can develop when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin due to an illness or condition that affects or damages the pancreas. It can be due to surgery on the pancreas or if it is removed.

Steroid-induced Diabetes

In Steroid-induced diabetes, the liver reduces the amount of glucose it
releases in response to insulin. Steroids make the liver less sensitive to
insulin so it carries on releasing glucose even if the pancreas is releasing
insulin. Many people will find that their blood sugar levels return to a
healthy range when they stop taking steroids.

Cystic fibrosis Diabetes

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a distinct form of diabetes mellitus that is an important complication of CF. It is different from either type 1 or type
2 diabetes mellitus but shares features of both [1]. The primary cause is a
relative insulin deficiency related to the destruction of the pancreas. The
build-up of sticky mucus caused by cystic fibrosis can lead to inflammation and
scarring of the pancreas. The most common complication of cystic fibrosis is
problems with the lungs, also known as pulmonary or respiratory problems, which result in a serious lung infection.

Unfortunately, the above-mentioned type of diabetic people are fewer in number, but many of these people are misdiagnosed, leading to delays in getting the right treatment.

Dangerous Diabetes

  • Adults with diabetes have a two- to three-fold increased risk of heart attacks and strokes.
  • A deadly combination of reduced blood flow and neuropathy (nerve damage) in the feet increases the chance of foot ulcers, infection and the eventual need for limb amputation.
  • Long-term small blood vessel damage in the retina leading to diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness.  Approximately, 1 million people are blind due to diabetes.
  • Diabetes is the main cause of kidney failure.
  • People with diabetes are more likely to have poor outcomes for several infectious diseases, including COVID-19.

Care to Prevent


Lifestyle measures to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes so people should:

  •  Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight.
  •  Physically be active.
  •  Eat a healthy diet, and avoid sugar and saturated fats.
  •  Stop tobacco use – smoking increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
  • Blood pressure control is also important.
  •  Foot care is vital.
  •  Regular screening and early treatment for retinopathy.
  •  Blood lipid control (to regulate cholesterol levels).
  • Screening for early signs of diabetes-related kidney disease and treatment.

The Blue Circle

The blue circle is the global symbol for diabetes awareness and the logo of World Diabetes Day. The colour blue reflects the sky that unites all nations and is the colour of the United Nations flag. The blue circle signifies the unity of the global diabetes community in response to the diabetes pandemic.